Técnicas analíticas para la caracterización de documentos: una revisión bibliográfica

  • Gemma María Contreras Subdirección General del Institut Valencià de Conservació, Restauració i Investigació (IVCR+i) Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia, España
  • Javier Becerra Luna Universidad Pablo de Olavide
Palabras clave: Técnicas analíticas, manuscritos, caracterización, diagnóstico

Resumen

El interés por la conservación de manuscritos ha crecido en las últimas décadas, bien por su valor artístico o por la información única que custodian. Para ello, es preciso conocer tanto los materiales empleados, como las alteraciones presentes, a fin de discernir el mejor tratamiento de restauración según sus características.

La implementación de técnicas analíticas aplicadas a este campo de estudio ha permitido mejorar el conocimiento sobre el patrimonio documental y bibliográfico. De este modo, se pueden emplear técnicas elementales (energías dispersivas de rayos X, fluorescencia de rayos X, etc.) o moleculares (espectroscopía infrarroja, espectroscopía Raman, etc.) para analizar los materiales inorgánicos u orgánicos. Si bien muchos de estos estudios han estado encaminados a estudiar manuscritos iluminados, es importante prestar especial atención a los estudios publicados sobre la caracterización de tintas metalográficas, las cuales se relacionan con la preservación de la información y con la degradación del soporte. El empleo de técnicas de imagen (microscopía óptica, fotografía infrarroja, microscopía electrónica, etc.) permite complementar los estudios de diagnóstico e identificación de materiales. Sin embargo, un conocimiento pormenorizado del manuscrito estudiado requiere del diseño de un protocolo de estudio en el que se complemente la información obtenida mediante la selección de las técnicas más adecuadas en función de las características del manuscrito y la disponibilidad de estas.

El objetivo principal de este artículo es simplificar la toma de decisiones en torno a la selección de técnicas analíticas y no solo dar una revisión bibliográfica de los principales estudios sobre el análisis de soportes y materiales respaldados. Además, se ha diseñado un protocolo que facilita al restaurador la selección de técnicas analíticas en función del material a caracterizar y los recursos disponibles.

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Biografía del autor/a

Gemma María Contreras, Subdirección General del Institut Valencià de Conservació, Restauració i Investigació (IVCR+i) Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia, España

Gemma Mª Contreras Zamorano has a degree in Geography and History, specialized in Art, by the University of Valencia, where she obtained the DEA and the PhD degree with a research about inks of Valencian manuscripts between 1250 and 1600. In addition, she has a degree in Fine Arts, specialized in conservation and restoration of cultural heritage, by the Polytechnic University of Valencia. She is currently a professor in the master of Diagnosis of the State of Preservation of the Historical Heritage at the Pablo de Olavide University (Seville), which she previously studied. Since 1999, she has worked for the Generalitat Valenciana as a restorer of graphic works and archival material. In 2008, she got the position of section head of this department at the Valencià Institute of Conservation and Restoration. Since November 2015, she is director of this institution.

She has two books about cultural heritage and conservation, and 50 articles about paper restoration and research on materials and application techniques. She has conducted several courses about conservation and restoration of graphic artworks and archival materials at Spanish and international universities (Basque Country, Seville, Managua-Nicaragua, Quito-Ecuador), as well as other public institutions such as the Alhambra in Granada, Arxiu de la Seu d'Urgell, Suleymaniye Library (Istanbul), CIRMA (Guatemala), INHCA (Nicaragua).

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Publicado
2020-06-25
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Contreras, G. M., & Becerra Luna, J. (2020). Técnicas analíticas para la caracterización de documentos: una revisión bibliográfica. Ge-Conservacion, 17(1), 251-266. https://doi.org/10.37558/gec.v17i1.760
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